Informational Library

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GCI Tech Notes

Dealing with Technical Complexities in Environmental Litigation and Enforcement Actions

HAZOP - Before You Start

HAZOP Reviews

Restricting Highly Toxic Waste at HWF Facilities

Protocol for Health and Safety Review of Volatile and Semivolatile Data


Analytical Methods

Some of the types of analytical testing which we employ are briefly described below. A detailed description of the instrumentation and methodology is provided in pdf format by clicking on the following links.

Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectroscopy

Gas chromatography separates compounds and them mass spectroscopy determines each compound's molecular mass and ionic fragments. This is a specific test that can positively identify the actual presence of a particular compound in a given sample.

Ion Chromatography

Ion chromatography is an analytical technique used for the separation and determination of ions such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, etc., in liquids.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy measures the wavelength and intensity of the absorption of near-infrared light by a sample. Fourier transform analysis is used to plot a spectrum relating light absorbance or transmittance and frequency (or wavelength).  FTIR may be used to identify an unknown material, the consistency of a product, or the amount of components in a mixture.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight (MALDI_TOF) Mass Spectroscopy

MALDI-TOF is a very sensitive technique used to determine the mass of polymera, proteins, or peptides.  A prepared sample mixture is irradiated with a laser, vaporizing the sample mixture into various compound fragments.  The pattern of fragments is analyzed to deduce the structure of the original molecule.

Static Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (SSIMS)

SIMMS is a technique used to analyze the composition of a solid surface using ion beams.  A focused ion beam is directed onto the surface of a sample resulting in particles being emitted as ions, called secondary ions.  These are collected and analyzed by a mass spectrometer which produces a spectrum from which the chemical structure and elemental composition of the molecular layer (uppermost molecular layer) of a solid can be determined, including the nature and properties of adsorbed areas.  SIMMS is an excellent method for mapping a surface and can provide a surface map of atoms and molecules of both organic and inorganic species of a sample.

Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX)

Scanning Electron Microscopy emits a finely-focused beam of electrons onto a sample to provide a high-resolution, high-magnification image, and it can be used to analyze electron energies to create a three-dimensional image. X-rays are also produced and analyzed by an energy-dispersive x-ray instrument to produce a spectrum of peaks corresponding to energy levels. This simultaneously examines the morphology and elemental composition of samples.

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Thermogravimetric analysis measures the change in weight that occurs in response to a variety of data including endotherms, exotherms, measurements of the oxidation process, thermal stability, decomposition points of explosives, characteristics of polymers, and degradation temperatures of a material.

Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS)

Py-GC/MS uses high temperatures in an inert atmosphere or under vacuum to heat and degrade a sample to produce smaller and more analytically useful fragments. These fragments can be separated on a gas chromatography column and detected in a mass spectrometry instrument. A chromatogram of peaks is produced where each peak represents a compound and its relative abundance.

Primer on Forensic Test Methods (Coming Soon)

Toxicity and Chemical Exposure Issues 

Chronic vs. Acute Toxicity


Patent Holder and Sole Inventor

“Method for Reducing the Mercury (Hg) and Other Metal Emissions from a Plant for Manufacturing Cement Clinker and Other Industrial Processes,” Patent No.: US 8,980,205, Date of Patent: Mar. 17, 2015


“Secure Containers having unidirectional apparatuses for used or unused materials and methods for making and using same,” Patent No.: US 8,324,443, Date of Patent: Dec. 4, 2012

“System and method for making cement and cement derived therefrom,” Patent No.: US 8,268,073, Date of Patent: September 18, 2012

“Method and System of Making a Burnable Fuel,” Patent No.: US 8,163,045, Date of Patent: Apr. 24, 2012

Glossary [In development]